STD IX Social Science II (English Medium) Chapter 1 ON THE ROOF OF THE WORLD - Questions and Answers

Questions and Answers for Class 9th Social Science II (English Medium) ലോകത്തിന്റെ നിറുകയിൽ | Text Books Solution Geography (English Medium) Geography: Chapter 01 On The Roof of the World

Class 9 Social Science Sun: The Ultimate Souce - Questions and Answers & Model Questions
1. Based on topography, India can be divided into five physiographic divisions. Which are they?
1. The Northern Mountain Region
2. The North Indian Plain
3. The Peninsular Plateau
4. The Indian Desert
5. The Coastal Plains and Islands

2. Write the extension of Northern mountain ranges
Answer: The Northern mountain ranges that form the north and the northeastern boundary of the Indian subcontinent include several mountain ranges originating from the Pamir Knot known as 'the Roof of the World' and extending up to Purvachal in the east.

3. Which mountain range is known as ‘the Roof of the World'
Answer: Pamir Knot

4. Pamir plateau The roof of the world.
Answer: The Pamir Plateau situated in  Central Asia is known as the roof of the world. The mountain ranges such as Hindukush, Sulaiman, Tien Shan, Kunlun, Karakoram, etc. radiate in different directions from the Pamir knot. The Kaila's ranges in Tibet are an extension of the Karakoram mountain ranges.

5. Identify the other mountain ranges that originate from the Pamir Knot and list them.
&#96#9679; Kunlun
● Tian Shan
● Hindukush
● Karakoram

6. What are the features of the Northern Mountain ranges?
 The relatively young and lofty northern mountain ranges have been formed by the folding of rock layers.
 The Northern mountain extends from River Indus in the west to River Brahmaputra in the east for nearly 2400 km and has a width ranging from 150 to 400 km. 
 The region has a peculiar landscape with several peaks, glaciers and valleys.

7. Based on the topographical characteristics, the Northern mountain region can be classified into three. Which are they?
1. Trans Himalayas
2. The Himalayas
3. The Eastern Hills

8. What are mountains?
Answer: Generally mountains are landforms with an average elevation above 900 metres from the sea level.

9. How fold mountains are formed? (What is known as folding?) write examples.
(How the Himalayas and the Alps were formed?)
• Fold mountains are formed due to the compression of sedimentary rock strata of the earth's
crust. This process is known as folding. 
• The Himalayas and the Alps were formed through this process.

10. Which are the mountain ranges included in the Trans Himalayas?
Answer:  Karakoram, Ladakh and Saskar

11. Prepare a table showing the Northern Mountain region's divisions and mountain ranges?
12. The northernmost division of the Trans Himalayas is also known as the ...................
Answer: Tibetan Himalayas

13. Write a brief note on Trans Himalayas 
● The northernmost division of the Trans Himalayas is also known as the Tibetan Himalayas.
●  Having an average elevation of 3000 metres, the Trans Himalayas has an approximate
width of 40 km and a length of 965 km.
●  The Karakoram range connects the Himalayas with the Pamir Knot.

14. Which is the highest mountain peak in India?
Answer: Mount K2 (8661m) also known as Godwin Austin, the highest peak in India, is in the Karakoram range.

15. Three parallel mountain ranges together to form the Himalayas. Which are they?
• Himadri
• Himachal 
• Shiwaliks 

16. What are the characteristic features of the Shiwalik Range, the Himachal mountain range and the Himadri?
1. The Shiwalik Range
• The Shiwalik Range, the southernmost of the Himalayan ranges and forms the borders of the Ganga Plains, has a width ranging from an average of 60 to 150 km.
• As the outermost part, this range is known as the Outer Himalayas.
2. The Himachal mountain range
• To the north of the Shiwaliks, is the Himachal mountain range, with an average elevation ranging from 3500 to 4500 metres above the mean sea level. 
• This range is also known as the Lesser Himalayas and has a ranging from 60 to 80 km. and has a width from 60 to 80 km
3. The Himadri
• The Himadri, also known as the Greater Himalayas or the Inner Himalayas, is the
mountain range at an average elevation of about 6100 metres above the mean sea
• The width of the range is nearly 25 km. These are snow-clad mountains.
• Most of the world's highest peaks are situated in this range.

17. Do you know that the Himalayas, one of the world's lofty mountains, is still
growing? What may be the reason?
• This is due to plate tectonics. 
• Tectonic plates are the crustal rock blocks of continental and oceanic parts.
• Asthenosphere is the zone beneath the lithosphere where the rocks are molten and semi-plastic due to the high temperature. 
• The tectonic plates move very slowly above the asthenosphere.
• Earth processes like orogenic (mountain building) are active along the plate boundaries.

18. What are known as Lithospheric plates?
• Lithospheric plate includes the crust and the upper mantle.
• Lithosphere consists of fragments of varying sizes. 
• Portions of such lithospheric parts, each with thousands of kilometres of width and nearly 100 km thickness are known as lithospheric plates. 
• These plates may cover the continental portion, ocean bottom or both.

19. What is Asthenosphere?
Answer: Asthenosphere is the zone beneath the lithosphere where the rocks are molten and semi-plastic due to the high temperature. 

20. What are the three types of plate boundaries?
● Convergent Boundary
● Divergent Boundary
● Transform(Shear) Boundary

21. Explain Convergent Boundary, Divergent Boundary, and Transform (Shear Margin) Boundary?
● Convergent Boundary-Boundaries where plates move towards each other.
● Divergent Boundary-Boundaries where plates move away from each other 
● Transform(Shear) Boundary-Boundaries where plates slide past each other
22. What causes the formation of fold mountains?
• Rock layers along the convergent boundary get folded due to the compression of lithosphere plates. 
• This leads to the formation of fold mountains.

23. How the Himalayas were formed?
• The Indian Plate which includes Peninsular India and the Australian continent was located in the southern hemisphere about 150-160 million years ago. 
• As it moved northwards and came close to the Eurasian Plate, the Tethys seabed between the two landmasses, started uplifting. 
• This is how the Himalayas were formed.

24. In which plate boundary was the Himalayas formed?
Answer: Convergent boundary

25. What are called Gorges?
• Deep valleys with steep sides are known as gorges. 
• River Indus, River Ganga and River Brahmaputra create gorges across the Himalayan ranges through erosion.
• The rivers that originate from the Himalayas create deep gorges in their course.

26. The regional divisions of the Himalayas have been made based on these cross-cutting rivers. What are the regional divisions of the Himalayas?
1. Western Himalayas
2. Central Himalayas
3. Eastern Himalayas

27. Write the three regional divisions of the Himalayas and the rivers that separate them.
28. Write the extension of the Western Himalayas?
Answer: The Western Himalayas which stretches from the Indus River valley to the north of Jammu and Kashmir up to the Kali Arigger Valley (River Ghaghara's tributary)  in the eastern part of Uttarakhand.

29. The Western Himalayas can be classified into three. which are they?
• Kashmir Himalaya
• Himachal Himalaya
• Uttarakhand Himalaya
• Kashmir Himalaya

30. Describe the features of Kashmir Himalaya?
• The Kashmir Himalaya which extends over nearly 3.5 lakh sq. km in Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh region is roughly 700 km long and 500 km wide.
• The important mountain ranges of Kashmir Himalaya containing snow-covered peaks, valleys and hill ranges are Karakoram, Zaskar, Ladakh and Pir Panjal.
• Mount K2 (Godwin Austin-8611 metres), the second-highest peak in the world, is situated in the Karakoram range.
• Siachen, Boltoro etc. are the important glaciers of this region. 
• These glaciers help the River Indus and its tributaries, such as Ravi, Jhelum and Chenab, have a luxuriant water flow throughout the valley.
• The freight and passenger movement on either side of the mountains is made possible through the mountain passes.
• Passes are the comparatively easier natural passages in the mountainous terrains. Banihal Pass across the Pir-Panjal Range that connects Jammu with the Kashmir Valley is an example.
• There are numerous freshwater lakes in the Kashmir Himalaya and Dal Lake is important among them. Srinagar is situated on the banks of this lake.
• It is an important tourist and commercial centre too. 
• The Shikara boats and floating markets are the hallmarks of Kashmir tourism.
• Margs are meadows formed along the mountain slopes during the summer season. 
• As these 'Margs' get covered under snow during winter, the region attracts tourists for winter games such as skiing, Sonmarg and Gulmarg are examples

31. Which is the second highest peak in the world, situated in the Karakoram range?
Answer: Mount K2 (Godwin Austin-8611 metres)
32. What are passes?
• Passes are the comparatively easier natural passages in the mountainous terrains. 
• Banihal Pass across the Pir-Panjal Range that connects Jammu with the Kashmir Valley is an example.

33. What are 'Margs'?
• Margs are meadows formed along the mountain slopes during the summer season. 
• As these 'Margs' get covered under snow during winter, the region attracts tourists for winter games such as skiing. Sonmarg and Gulmarg are examples

34. Which Glacier is known as the world's highest battlefield?
Answer: Siachen Glacier  

35. Why are the Himalayan rivers water-rich year-round?
Answer:  Himalayan rivers water rich year-round because rivers rising in this area are perennial. They are fed by the glaciers from the mountains and the heavy rainfall.

36. What are the features of Himachal Himalaya?
• The major share of Himachal Himalaya is the state of Himachal Pradesh.
• Chenab, Ravi and Beas are the important rivers in this mountainous region
• Dhowladhar and Pir Panjal are the mountain ranges in this region. 
• Several freshwater lakes like Chandratal and Surajtal are found in these mountain ranges.
• The Baralacha La Pass connects Himachal Pradesh with Ladakh and the Rohtang Pass that connects Kulu Valley with Lahul and Spiti Valleys are the important passes in Himachal Himalaya.
• Beautiful valleys such as Kulu. Kangra and Lahul and tourist centres such as Shimla and Manali attract numerous tourists.
• In these places where snowfall and mild winters are experienced, hot springs places can also be seen in a few places.

37. How are hot springs formed?
• Rainwater seeps into the earth and becomes a part of the groundwater. 
• In areas where mountain-building processes (orogenic processes) are active, the sub-surface rock layers get heated up and these rock layers warm up the groundwater. 
• The groundwater, thus warmed, rises to the surface as hot springs.
• Numerous hot springs can be seen in the Himalayan terrain, for eg. Nubra Valley,
Manikaran, Kheerganga. 
• Electric power can be generated using this geothermal energy. Such a geothermal power plant is functioning at Manikaran hotspring in Himachal Pradesh

38. Brief note on the features of Uttarakhand Himalaya?
• The Uttarakhand Himalaya is part of the Himalayas which extends from River Satluj to River Kali.
• Its western side is known as Gadwal Himalaya and the eastern side is known as Kumaon Himalayas.
• Several high peaks such as Nandadevi, Kamet, Badrinath, Kedarnath etc. are situated in the Uttarakhand Himalaya.
• The Gangotri and Yamunotri glaciers from where the rivers Ganga and Yamuna originate and freshwater lakes such as Nainital and Bhimtal are also situated in this region.
• The flat valleys seen in between the Lesser Himalayas and the Shiwalik hill ranges are Duns. Dehradun in Uttarakhand state is famous among these.
• The alpine summer meadows along the higher altitude mountain slopes of this region are called 'Bugyals'. 
• The Bugyals, when get buried under snow during winter, is made use for winter tourism in many areas. 
Eg-Dayara Bugyal, Gorson Bugyal

39. What are called 'Bugyals?
• The alpine summer meadows along the higher-altitude mountain slopes of   Uttarakhand Himalaya are called 'Bugyals. 
• The Bugyals, when get buried under snow during winter, are made used for winter tourism in many areas.Eg-Dayara Bugyal, Gorson Bugyal

40. What are Duns?
• The flat valleys seen in between the Lesser Himalayas and the Shiwalik hill ranges are Duns. Dehradun in Uttarakhand state is famous among these.

41. Briefly explain about Bugyals and Shepherds
• The meadows in the Himalayas found between 3000 to 4500 metres (between the tree line and the snow line) are called Bugyals in the Gadwal region 
• Bugyals remain under snow during winter.
• When the snow melts away in summer, Bugyals are transformed into green meadows. 
• The shepherds reach these meadows from the dry valleys with their herds during the summer season. 
• Leaving their dry valleys, they make temporary camping sheds and live along with their livestock in the luxuriant green bagyals.
• With the advent of winter, they leave these hills and live in the valleys until the next season.
• This seasonal migration along with their domestic animals from one grazing ground to another is known as transhumance.

● Snowline - The snowline is the line around the mountains above which snow is on the ground all year round. 
● Tree line - treeline is the line around the mountains above which no trees will grow. This is because there is either too little air or the weather is so severe that trees cannot survive.
42. what are the peculiarities of the Central Himalayas?
• The part of the Himalayas from River Kali to River Teesta is the Central Himalayas, It is also known as the Nepal Himalayas since the majority of this region falls in Nepal.
• Only the Western Sikkim and Darjeeling regions of the Central Himalayas are in India. 
• The world's highest peak - Mount Everest-is in Nepal
• Mount  Kanchenjunga and the Nathula Pass along the India-China border are located in this region.
• The swift-flowing Teesta River and its stream terraces are the features of the Sikkim Himalaya.
• The British, having identified the favourable conditions, started tea cultivation here during the colonial era. 
• The Darjeeling tea produced here is internationally famous.

43. The Central Himalayas is also known as the Nepal Himalayas. Why?
Answer: The Central Himalayas are also known as the Nepal Himalayas since the majority of this region falls in Nepal.

44. Which is the world's highest peak ?
Answer: Mount Everest is in Nepal
45. Eastern Himalayas is also known as.....................
Answer: Assam Himalayas

46. Write the features of the Eastern Himalayas?
• These are low hills as compared to the Western Himalayas, extending from River Teesta to River Brahmaputra in the east. 
• This is also known as the Assam Himalayas. 
• The highest peak in this region is Namcha Barwa (7756 m)
• Brahmaputra, Kameng, Lohit and Subansiri are the important rivers in the Eastern Himalayas region. 
• The Bomdila which connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet and Diphu, which connects with Myanmar, are important passes in this region

47. Which is the highest peak in the Eastern Himalayas?
Answer: Namcha Barwa (7756 m)

48. What is the capital city of Tibet?
Answer: Lhasa

49. Brief note about Purvachal Hills
• The Himalayas mountains are seen as hills of lesser elevation in the north-south direction from Arunachal Pradesh up to Mizoram.
• These hills having an average elevation of 500 to 3000 metres above mean sea level are known as Purvachal Hills.
• Of these, the most important are Patkaibum, the Naga Hills, the Mizo Hills and the Manipur Hills. 
• Cherrapunjii and Mawsynram located here receive the highest rainfall in the world.
• Root bridge in Meghalaya, constructed by the local folk, using braided tree routes to cross turbulent streams can be seen here. It is a clear evidence of the harmonious co-existence of people with nature.

50. Keibul Lamjao -Floating National Park
• The Keibul Lamjao National Park is situated in the largest freshwater lake in North Eastern India (Manipur). 
• The small islands formed in the lake by the floating organic matter along with soil are called Phumdi.
• The Keibul Lamjan National Park consists of several such phumdis in Loktak Lake.
•  Each phumdi contains unique ecosystems including plants, birds and small organisms.
• The Laktak Lake is included in the Ramsar List of Sites for Watershed Conservation.

51. What is called Phumdi?
• The small islands formed in the lake by the floating organic matter along with soil are called Phumdi.
52. Write a brief note on the climate of the Himalayan mountain zone?
• The Himalayas, forming India's northern boundary along with the other continuous mountains together make a climatic divide between the Indian Subcontinent and Central Asia. 
• The climate of the Himalayan mountain zone varies according to the elevation and the topography of the respective parts of the region.
• Mild climate prevails along the lower mountain slopes and the Shiwalik foothills. 
• But at higher elevations, there will be considerably low temperatures and winter climate conditions at extremely high altitudes and in the Ladakh region, a Pole-like extreme winter climate is experienced.
• South West Monsoon rains are received along the southern slopes of the Shiwalik ranges and the North Eastern India. Snowfall is common in the higher regions of the mountains.
• The Monsoon winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal get trapped in between the Assam Himalayas and the Purvachal Hills.
• As a result, most of its moisture reaches back to earth as rain. Hence, the North-Eastern India, especially the Meghalaya Plateau, receives heavy rainfall

53. Why are there numerous hill stations in the Himalayan Mountains?
• Hill stations in the Himalayan mountains are popular for their cooler climates and stunning scenery, making them ideal retreats from the heat of the plains.
• They were initially developed during the British colonial era as summer resorts, and their popularity has endured due to their natural beauty and recreational opportunities. 
• Additionally, the Himalayan range offers diverse landscapes, from lush forests to snowcapped peaks, providing a range of experiences for visitors. Himalaya drainage system

54. Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers along with their tributaries, create the Himalaya drainage system. Justify
• Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers along with their tributaries are rainfed and snow-fed, they are perennial (water rich) throughout the year.
• These rivers have turbulent flow in their mountainous course. 
• Flooding and channel deviation are common in the plains.
• These rivers create landforms such as V-shaped valleys, gorges and waterfalls

55. Find out the major Himalayan rivers, the states through which they flow, and their tributaries with the help of the map provided and complete. Don't forget to refer to the atlas.
56. What is called a waterfall?
• The free fall of water vertically from a cliff in the course of a river or stream is called a waterfall.
• It is caused due to the excessive erosion of the soft rocks in the course of rivers 

57. How V-shaped valleys are formed?
• During the river flow the lateral erosion leads to the enhancement of the width of the river valley and the vertical erosion leads to the depth of the valley. 
• As a result of the whole process, river valleys with slanting sides are developed. Since they resemble the English alphabet 'V', the valleys are known as V-shaped valleys

58. The Himalayan rivers are flood-prone even during summer. Why?
• The Himalayas are prone to summer floods due to several factors, including heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt from higher elevations, and the melting of glaciers. 
• These combined factors can lead to an increase in water volume in rivers and streams, resulting in flooding downstream. 
• Additionally, the region's rugged terrain can exacerbate the effects of flooding by channelling water quickly towards lower areas.

59. Prepare a table of the important drainage system of the North Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand and Nepal Himalaya, Eastern Himalaya
60. What are the distinguishing characteristics of soil in the Himalayan terrain, particularly in terms of texture, particle size, and humus content, and how do these factors vary between mountain slopes and valleys?
• Mountain soil and forest soil are commonly seen in the Himalayan terrain. 
• The soil texture and particle size vary according to the mountain environment.
• Fine-grained soil with high humus content is seen in the valleys, whereas in the high slopes, coarse-grained soil with low humus content can be seen.
• Alluvial deposition is mainly seen in the valleys. 
• Karewas is the glacial sediment deposited in the Kashmir Valley. This humus-rich fine soil is ideal for saffron cultivation

61. What could be the reason for the occurrence of alluvial soil in the valleys between the mountain ranges?
• The occurrence of alluvial soil in valleys between mountain ranges is primarily due to erosion. 
• Over time, rivers carry sediment from the mountains down into the valleys, depositing it as alluvium. 
• This process repeats over centuries, gradually building up layers of fertile soil.
Natural Vegetation
62. What factors influence the different types of natural vegetation in the Himalayan terrain?
• Differences in factors like elevation, topography, soil type and climate lead to regional variations in natural vegetation in the Himalayan terrain.

63. Brief description of natural vegetation in the Himalayan region?
• Differences in factors like elevation, topography, soil type and climate lead to regional variations in natural vegetation in the Himalayan terrain.
• As the average annual rainfall received is above 200 cm, more tropical evergreen vegetation is found in the Eastern Himalayas and the North Eastern Hills.
• Depending on the changes in the altitude, a spectrum of natural vegetation from evergreen forests to the vegetation type of cold climates such as Tundra can be found here.
• Semi-evergreen and deciduous forests are seen in the valleys and the lower mountain slopes.
• Moist deciduous forests are seen at altitudes ranging from 1000 to 2000 metres. 
• Coniferous tree varieties such as pine and deodar grow more along the mountain slopes. 
• Shrubs such as junipers and rhododendrons grow at higher altitudes whereas in the highest altitude, alpine meadows are seen.

64. What are some examples of the diverse wildlife found in the Himalayan region, and what conservation measures have been implemented to protect them?
• The Himalayan region is the natural habitat of several wild animals like yak, musk deer, single-horned rhinoceros and snow leopard.
• Biosphere Reserves, National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries have been established for wildlife protection in the Himalayan terrain.

65. Prepare a table of Major National Parks in Western Himalaya and Eastern Himalaya
66. What are some agricultural practices in mountainous regions to overcome challenges such as elevation, steep slopes, and poor soil quality? 
• Agriculture is sparse in the mountainous region due to the limitations of its terrain.
Elevation, steepness of slope, immature soil, low temperature etc. are the adverse factors. 
• Still the resident communities engage in different subsistence agricultural activities. 
• They terrace the mountain slopes to cultivate suitable crops like paddy, legumes and potatoes during the rainy season and wheat, and temperate fruit crops during the spring.
• Tea is a major crop along mountain slopes and valleys of the Eastern Himalayas, especially in the Assam and Darjeeling regions.
• The tribal population of the North Eastern Hills, on the other hand, follow traditional practices such as shifting cultivation

67. What types of animals are commonly reared by Himalayan mountain dwellers, and how does their choice of animals vary with the elevation and climate?
• Animal rearing is the main occupation of those living in the Himalayan Mountains.
• Climate varies according to elevation and the type of animals reared also varies
• Goats and cattle are kept in the valleys whereas sheep and horses are reared in the mountain slopes.
• At the extremely cold regions of Himachal and Ladakh, species that can resist severe cold such as yak are reared.
• Gujjars are the shepherd tribes who live in the mountain meadows of Western

68. As the geographical conditions are favourable, the entire Himalayan region has become a zone with high economic potential for tourism. Justify
• Travels associated with pilgrimage were what initiated the development of tourism in these regions. 
• There are several pilgrim centres in this region such as Kailas, Manasarovar, Amarnath and Hema Kund Sahib. These places have been attracting travellers for centuries.
• The second phase of tourism development in the Himalayan Mountain region began in the 19th century when the British identified the area's favourable climate. 
• The resort towns such as Shimla, Darjeeling, Shillong, Almora, Ranikhet, Mussoorie and Nainital are important tourist centres.
• The third stage of modern tourism development began in the Himalayan region after the conquest of Mount Everest by Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and Edmond Hillary on 29th May 1953.
• Today the adventure tourism sector promoting Mountaineering, Paragliding, skiing etc. has developed significantly in this region.

69. Broad flat valleys seen along the Siwaliks ranges are called:
Answer: Duns

70. Which type of soil is mostly found in the northern mountain region?.
Answer: The soil generally found in the northern mountain region is fertile mountain soil.